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Driving under the influence--driving while impaired--driving with excessive alcoholic content , section: 42-4-1301

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Refusal Offense/Presumption, Presumptions/Express Consent

(5) In any prosecution for a violation of paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) of this section, the amount of alcohol in the defendant's blood or breath at the time of the commission of the alleged offense or within a reasonable time thereafter, as shown by analysis of the defendant's blood or breath, shall give rise to the following presumptions:

(a) If there was at such time 0.05 or less grams of alcohol per one hundred milliliters of blood as shown by analysis of such person's blood or if there was at such time 0.05 or less grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath as shown by analysis of such person's breath, it shall be presumed that the defendant was not under the influence of alcohol and that the defendant's ability to operate a vehicle was not impaired by the consumption of alcohol.

(b) If there was at such time in excess of 0.05 but less than 0.10 grams of alcohol per one hundred milliliters of blood as shown by analysis of such person's blood or if there was at such time in excess of 0.05 but less than 0.10 grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath as shown by analysis of such person's breath, such fact shall give rise to the presumption that the defendant's ability to operate a vehicle was impaired by the consumption of alcohol, and such fact may also be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether or not the defendant was under the influence of alcohol.

(c) If there was at such time 0.10 or more grams of alcohol per one hundred milliliters of blood as shown by analysis of such person's blood or if there was at such time 0.10 or more grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath as shown by analysis of such person's breath, it shall be presumed that the defendant was under the influence of alcohol.

(d) The limitations of this subsection (5) shall not be construed as limiting the introduction, reception, or consideration of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question of whether or not the defendant was under the influence of alcohol or whether or not the defendant's ability to operate a vehicle was impaired by the consumption of alcohol.

(7)(a)(I) On and after July 1, 1983, any person who drives any motor vehicle upon the streets and highways and elsewhere throughout this state shall be deemed to have expressed such person's consent to the provisions of this paragraph (a).

(II)(A) Any person who drives any motor vehicle upon the streets and highways and elsewhere throughout this state shall be required to take and complete, and to cooperate in the taking and completing of, any test or tests of such person's breath or blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the person's blood or breath when so requested and directed by a law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that the person was driving a motor vehicle in violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section. Except as otherwise provided in this section, if a person who is twenty-one years of age or older requests that said test be a blood test, then the test shall be of his or her blood; but, if such person requests that a specimen of his or her blood not be drawn, then a specimen of such person's breath shall be obtained and tested. A person who is under twenty-one years of age shall be entitled to request a blood test unless the alleged violation is a class A traffic infraction, in which case a specimen of such person's breath shall be obtained and tested, except as provided in sub-subparagraph (B) of this subparagraph (II).

(B) If a person elects either a blood test or a breath test, such person shall not be permitted to change such election, and, if such person fails to take and complete, and to cooperate in the completing of, the test elected, such failure shall be deemed to be a refusal to submit to testing. If such person is unable to take, or to complete, or to cooperate in the completing of a breath test because of injuries, illness, disease, physical infirmity, or physical incapacity, or if such person is receiving medical treatment at a location at which a breath testing instrument certified by the department of public health and environment is not available, the test shall be of such person's blood.

(III) Any person who drives any motor vehicle upon the streets and highways and elsewhere throughout this state shall be required to submit to and to complete, and to cooperate in the completing of, a test or tests of such person's blood, saliva, and urine for the purpose of determining the drug content within the person's system when so requested and directed by a law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that the person was driving a motor vehicle in violation of paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of subsection (1) of this section and when it is reasonable to require such testing of blood, saliva, and urine to determine whether such person was under the influence of, or impaired by, one or more drugs, or one or more controlled substances, or a combination of both alcohol and one or more drugs, or a combination of both alcohol and one or more controlled substances.

(IV) Any person who is required to take and to complete, and to cooperate in the completing of, any test or tests shall cooperate with the person authorized to obtain specimens of such person's blood, breath, saliva, or urine, including the signing of any release or consent forms required by any person, hospital, clinic, or association authorized to obtain such specimens. If such person does not cooperate with the person, hospital, clinic, or association authorized to obtain such specimens, including the signing of any release or consent forms, such noncooperation shall be considered a refusal to submit to testing. No law enforcement officer shall physically restrain any person for the purpose of obtaining a specimen of such person's blood, breath, saliva, or urine for testing except when the officer has probable cause to believe that the person has committed a violation of section 18-3-105, 18-3-106(1)(b), 18-3-204, or 18-3-205(1)(b), C.R.S., and the person is refusing to take or to complete, or to cooperate in the completing of, any test or tests, then, in such event, the law enforcement officer may require a blood test. Evidence acquired through such involuntary blood test shall be admissible in any prosecution for a violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section and for a violation of section 18-3-105, 18-3-106(1)(b), 18-3-204, or 18-3-205(1)(b), C.R.S.

(V) Any driver of a commercial motor vehicle requested to submit to a test as provided in subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (a) shall be warned by the law enforcement officer requesting the test that a refusal to submit to the test shall result in an out-of-service order as defined under section 42-2-402(8) for a period of twenty-four hours and a revocation of the privilege to operate a commercial motor vehicle for one year as provided under section 42-2-126.

(b)(I) The tests shall be administered at the direction of a law enforcement officer having probable cause to believe that the person had been driving a motor vehicle in violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section and in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the state board of health concerning the health of the person being tested and the accuracy of such testing. Strict compliance with such rules and regulations shall not be a prerequisite to the admissibility of test results at trial unless the court finds that the extent of noncompliance with a board of health rule has so impaired the validity and reliability of the testing method and the test results as to render the evidence inadmissible. In all other circumstances, failure to strictly comply with such rules and regulations shall only be considered in the weight to be given to the test results and not to the admissibility of such test results. It shall not be a prerequisite to the admissibility of test results at trial that the prosecution present testimony concerning the composition of any kit used to obtain blood, urine, saliva, or breath specimens. A sufficient evidentiary foundation concerning the compliance of such kits with the rules and regulations of the department of public health and environment shall be established by the introduction of a copy of the manufacturer's or supplier's certificate of compliance with such rules and regulations if such certificate specifies the contents, sterility, chemical makeup, and amounts of chemicals contained in such kit.

(II) No person except a physician, a registered nurse, a paramedic, as certified in part 2 of article 3.5 of title 25, C.R.S., an emergency medical technician, as defined in part 1 of article 3.5 of title 25, C.R.S., or a person whose normal duties include withdrawing blood samples under the supervision of a physician or registered nurse shall be entitled to withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic or drug content therein. In any trial for a violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section, the testimony of a law enforcement officer that he or she witnessed the taking of a blood specimen by a person who the law enforcement officer reasonably believed was authorized to withdraw blood specimens shall be sufficient evidence that such person was so authorized, and testimony from the person who obtained the blood specimens concerning such person's authorization to obtain blood specimens shall not be a prerequisite to the admissibility of test results concerning the blood specimens obtained. No civil liability shall attach to any person authorized to obtain blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimens or to any hospital, clinic, or association in or for which such specimens are obtained as provided in this subsection (7) as a result of the act of obtaining such specimens from any person submitting thereto if such specimens were obtained according to the rules and regulations prescribed by the state board of health; except that this provision shall not relieve any such person from liability for negligence in the obtaining of any specimen sample.

(c) Any person who is dead or unconscious shall be tested to determine the alcohol or drug content of the person's blood or any drug content within such person's system as provided in this subsection (7). If a test cannot be administered to a person who is unconscious, hospitalized, or undergoing medical treatment because the test would endanger the person's life or health, the law enforcement agency shall be allowed to test any blood, urine, or saliva which was obtained and not utilized by a health care provider and shall have access to that portion of the analysis and results of any tests administered by such provider which shows the alcohol or drug content of the person's blood, urine, or saliva or any drug content within the person's system. Such test results shall not be considered privileged communications, and the provisions of section 13-90-107, C.R.S., relating to the physician-patient privilege shall not apply. Any person who is dead, in addition to the tests prescribed, shall also have the person's blood checked for carbon monoxide content and for the presence of drugs, as prescribed by the department of public health and environment. Such information obtained shall be made a part of the accident report.

(d) If a person refuses to take, or to complete, or to cooperate with the completing of any test or tests as provided in this subsection (7), the person shall be subject to license revocation pursuant to the provisions of section 42-2-126. Such revocation shall take effect prior to and shall stay the remainder of any previous suspension, or denial in lieu of suspension, and shall not run concurrently, in whole or in part, with any previous or subsequent suspensions, revocations, or denials which may be provided for by law, including any suspension, revocation, or denial which results from a conviction of criminal charges arising out of the same occurrence for a violation of subsection (1) or (2) of this section. The remainder of any suspension, or denial in lieu of suspension, stayed pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph (d) shall be reinstated following the completion of any revocation provided for in section 42-2-126. Any revocation taken under said section shall not preclude other actions which the department is required to take in the administration of the provisions of this title.

(e) If a person refuses to take or to complete, or to cooperate with the completing of, any test or tests as provided in this subsection (7) and such person subsequently stands trial for a violation of subsection (1) of this section, the refusal to take or to complete, or to cooperate with the completing of, any test or tests shall be admissible into evidence at the trial, and a person may not claim the privilege against self-incrimination with regard to admission of refusal to take or to complete, or to cooperate with the completing of, any test or tests.

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